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Linux Information|Annie UK


Wednesday 22 May 2024



Below is a list of random Debian based Linux information for my reference. This info also includes some fixes for Raspberry Pi specific related issues


Random Linux Information

001 – What apps are useful for a New (clean) Install | Debian
 

Nala - apt frontend:

sudo apt install nala

Misc apps etc…:

sudo nala install ufw gufw fonts-noto-color-emoji conky 7zip rclone tree traceroute inkscape rpi-imager vlc gparted audacious ansiweather w3m lynx psensor code mesa-vulkan-drivers mesa-utils vulkan-tools nmap mame keepassxc

Flatpak package manager:

sudo nala install flatpak

GIMP Beta:

flatpak install --user https://​flathub​.​org/beta-repo/appstream​/​org​.​gimp​.​GIMP​.​flatpakref

Netsurf web browser:

flatpak install --user netsurf

Password manager:

flatpak install --user keepassxc

SNAP Package manager:

sudo nala install snapd

SNAP Store and Commander x16 emulator:

snap install core snap-store x16emu



002 – Terminal | Debian
 

Use the following key-presses to open a terminal window:

Crtl + Alt + T

To display the terminal command history use the following command:

history



003 – Software update and Tidy up | Debian
 

Use the following commands in a terminal window to update Linux to the latest software:

sudo apt update

sudo apt upgrade

Tidy up install:

sudo apt -y autoremove && sudo apt -y clean && sudo apt -y purge ?config-files



004 – Journal files (journalctl) | Debian
 

Use the following command in a terminal window to clear out all journal files older than 1 day

sudo journalctl --vacuum-time=1d

Use the following command in a terminal window to clear out all journal files but leave the most recent files upto the specified amount of disk space (##B, ##M, ##G)

sudo journalctl --vacuum-size=1B

Use the following command in a terminal window to find out the amount of disk space it taken up by journaling

journalctl --disk-usage

Use the following command in a terminal window to disable journaling

systemctl disable systemd-journald



005 – Location of script files | Debian
 

Scripts can be placed in the following directory so you don't have to include the full path

/usr/local/bin



006 – Network Manager | Debian
 

To stop use the following

sudo systemctl stop NetworkManager.service

To start use the following:

sudo systemctl start NetworkManager.service

To restart use the following:

sudo systemctl restart NetworkManager.service



007 – Stop audio setting defaulting to headphones | RasPi OS | Ubuntu
 

Use the following (for Ubuntu 22.04 LTS):

sudo nano /etc/pulse/default.pa

Find "load-module module-switch-on-connect.so" and comment it out by adding a # to the front of the line



008 – Scrambled online accounts screen | Ubuntu | RasPi OS | Gnome
 

Use the following in terminal to open the settings with the screens unscrambled:

WEBKIT_DISABLE_COMPOSITING_MODE=1 gnome-control-center



009 – Stop polling for an SD card constantly when not using one | RasPi OS
 

Edit config.txt

sudo nano /boot/firmware/config.sys

Add the following to the end of config.txt

dtparam=sd_poll_once



010 – Get the CPU temparature | RasPi OS
 

Use the following command:

cat /sys/class/thermal/thermal_zone0/temp

Note: The result needs to be divided by 1000 to get the actual temperature in °C



011 – *.desktop file, allow launching | Debian
 

Use the following command:

gio set file.desktop metadata::trusted true



012 – Add *.desktop file to launcher and/or menu | Debian
 

Copy the *desktop file into the following folder:

~\.local\share\applications



013 – Turn off splash screen | RasPi OS
 

Edit the following file:

sudo nano /boot/firmware/cmdline.txt

Remove the following from the end of the line:

quiet splash



014 – Backup / Restore entire HDD using command line (Terminal) | Debian
 

Backup:

dd if=/dev/sda of=./part1.image

Restore:

ddd if=./part1.image of=/dev/sda



015 – Compressed backup to img file using command line (Terminal) | Debian
 

Backup:

cd ~

sudo dd if=/dev/<drive> | gzip -c - > <name>.img.gz

Where <drive> is the name of the mounted drive ie sde, mmcblk0, etc…



016 – Login screen settings | Gnome
 

Use the following to edit the settings:

sudo nano /etc/gdm3/greeter.dconf-defaults

Some settings under the [org/gnome/desktop/interface] section:

cursor-size=64

text-scaling-factor=1.50

clock-format="12h"



017 – ALT + F2 to open Run.. dialogue | Wayfire
 

Add the following into the file ~/.config/wayfire.ini at the bottom of the [command] section:

binding_power = <alt> KEY_F2

command_power = sh -c "$(zenity --entry --title="Run" --text="Enter Command")"



018 – Configure Network Manager from CLI | RasPi OS | Bookworm
 

Use the following command:

nmtui



019 – Auto update CertBot using cron | Debian
 

Use the following command to create a cron job:

sudo touch /etc/cron.d/certbot

Use Nano to edit the above file

sudo nano /etc/cron.d/certbot

Cut and paste the following into nano and save the file

# /etc/cron.d/certbot: crontab entries for the certbot package
#
# Upstream recommends attempting renewal twice a day
#
# Eventually, this will be an opportunity to validate certificates
# haven't been revoked, etc. Renewal will only occur if expiration
# is within 30 days.

SHELL=/bin/sh
PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin

0 */12 * * * root test -x /usr/bin/certbot -a \! -d /run/systemd/system && perl -e "sleep int(rand(3600))" && certbot -q renew



020 – Show network information | Debian
 

Use the following command (change eth0 for the device you're interested in):

nmcli device show eth0



021 – Check firmware is up to date | RasPi OS
 

Use the following command:

sudo rpi-eeprom-update



022 – Stop / Start a package from updating via apt | Debian
 

Use the following commands:

sudo apt-mark hold package-name

sudo apt-mark unhold package-name

or to show packages on hold

sudo apt-mark showhold



023 – numlock on at system start | Debian
 

Use the following command to install the app numlockx:

sudo nala install numlockx



024 – Dark mode for the login screen | RasPi OS
 

Edit the file /etc/lightdm/pi-greeter.conf:

[greeter]
default-user-image=/usr/share/raspberrypi-artwork/annieuk.png
desktop_bg=#000000000000
wallpaper=/usr/share/rpd-wallpaper/RPiSystemdark.png
wallpaper_mode=crop
gtk-theme-name=PiXnoir
gtk-icon-theme-name=PiXflat
gtk-font-name= PibotoLt 24

Note: The directories the wallpaper and icons come from should not be altered as this seems to be hardcoded somewhere, just place and new wallpaper / icon files in the above directories



025 – Find names and info of devices on the network | Debian
 

Use the following command:

avahi-browse -alr



026 – Find MAC address and device manufacturer of most network device | Debian
 

Use the following command:

sudo nmap -sn 192.168.1.0/24



027 – Clear swap file when plenty of RAM free | Debian
 

Use the following commands:

sudo swapoff -a; sudo swapon -a



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